Timing belt and sprockets - removal and refitting
Note: The belt tension should be checked using Ford special tool No 21-113 after refitting. A suitable puller may be required to remove the sprockets. If the camshaft sprocket is removed, a new retaining bolt must be used on refitting, and suitable sealant (Loctite 74 or 274, or Omnifit 30M blue) will be required to coat the bolt threads.
1.8 litre (R2A type)
1 If the engine is in the vehicle, carry out the following operations:
a) Disconnect the battery negative lead b) Remove the alternator drivebelt c) Remove the distributor cap, rotor arm and housing
d) Disconnect the wiring plug from the crankshaft speed/position sensor e) Unclip the coolant hoses from the timing cover, and position them across the top of the camshaft cover out of the way f) If desired for improved access, remove the fan shroud and cooling fan assembly, although this is not essential 2 Slacken the crankshaft pulley bolt. Prevent the crankshaft from turning by engaging top gear (manual gearbox only) and having an assistant apply the brake pedal hard, or by removing the starter motor and jamming the ring gear teeth with a lever.
3 Remove the bolt and washer and withdraw the pulley (see illustration). If the pulley will not come off easily, refit the bolt part way and use a puller, but take care not to damage the sensor toothed disc.
18.3 Withdrawing the crankshaft pulley - 1.8 litre (R2A)
4 Unscrew the two timing cover securing nuts, and recover the earth tag and the coolant hose clip.
5 Unscrew the two securing bolts and withdraw the timing cover (see illustration).
18.5 Withdrawing the timing cover - 1.8 litre (R2A)
6 Refit the crankshaft pulley bolt, and using a socket on the bolt, turn the engine clockwise until the TDC (top dead centre) lug on the crankshaft sprocket is uppermost, and in line with the notch in the oil pump flange, and the pointer on the camshaft sprocket is aligned with the dot on the cylinder head front face (see illustrations).
18.6a TDC lug on crankshaft sprocket aligned with notch in oil pump flange - 1.8 litre (R2A)
18.6b TDC pointer on camshaft sprocket aligned with dot on cylinder head - 1.8 litre (R2A)
7 Loosen the two timing belt tensioner bolts, press the tensioner to the left against the spring tension, and tighten the two bolts to retain the tensioner in the released position.
8 Mark the running direction of the belt if it is to be re-used, then slip it off the sprockets, and withdraw the belt (see illustration).
18.8 Withdrawing the timing belt - 1.8 litre (R2A)
9 If desired, the camshaft and crankshaft sprockets can be removed as follows, otherwise proceed to paragraph 19. The coolant pump sprocket is integral with the pump and cannot be removed separately.
10 Unscrew the crankshaft pulley bolt, preventing the crankshaft from turning as before if necessary, then remove the crankshaft sprocket. Refit the bolt part way and use a puller if necessary. Recover the Woodruff key from the end of the crankshaft and remove the thrustwasher (see illustrations).
18.10a Remove the crankshaft sprocket . . .
18.10b . . . the Woodruff key . . .
18.10c . . . and the thrustwasher - 1.8 litre (R2A)
11 Unscrew the camshaft sprocket bolt while holding the sprocket stationary with a 41 mm ring spanner. Alternatively, make up a tool similar to that shown for tightening the bolt and hold the sprocket using two bolts engaged in the sprockets holes. Recover the distributor rotor shaft which is held in place by the camshaft sprocket bolt (see illustration).
18.11 Removing the camshaft sprocket bolt and distributor rotor shaft - 1.8 litre (R2A)
12 Remove the camshaft sprocket, refitting the bolt part way and using a puller if necessary (see illustration).
18.12 Using a puller to remove the camshaft sprocket - 1.8 litre (R2A)
13 If desired, the timing belt backplate can be removed by lifting it from the studs (see illustration) and the timing belt tensioner and coolant pump can be removed.
18.13 Removing the timing belt backplate - 1.8 litre (R2A)
14 If required, the camshaft oil seal can be removed using self-tapping screws and a pair of grips. A new seal can be fitted using a suitable tube drift to press it into place.
Lubricate the seal lips with clean engine oil before installation.
15 Refit the sprockets as follows.
16 Where applicable, refit the timing belt tensioner and coolant pump, locate the timing belt backplate over the studs, then fit the camshaft sprocket and the distributor rotor shaft.
17 The camshaft sprocket bolt must be coated with sealant before installation. The manufacturers recommend Loctite 74 or 274, or Omnifit 30M blue. With the sealant applied, insert the bolt, hold the camshaft sprocket stationary as during removal, and tighten the bolt to the specified torque (see illustration).
18.17 Tightening the camshaft sprocket bolt. Hold the sprocket stationary using an improvised tool with two bolts engaged in the sprocket holes - 1.8 litre (R2A)
18 Refit the thrustwasher with the convex side facing forwards, and refit the Woodruff key, then refit the crankshaft sprocket with the “FRONT” mark facing forwards.
19 Fit the timing belt over the crankshaft sprocket, but do not engage it with the other sprockets yet. Be careful not to kink the belt, and if the old belt is being refitted, observe the previously noted running direction.
20 Make sure that the TDC pointer on the camshaft sprocket is still aligned with the dot on the cylinder head front face.
21 Check that the TDC lug on the crankshaft sprocket is still in line with the notch in the oil pump flange. If necessary, refit the crankshaft pulley bolt, if not already done, and using a socket on the bolt, turn the crankshaft by the shortest possible route to align the lug and notch.
22 Starting at the crankshaft and working in an anti-clockwise direction, fit the timing belt over the camshaft sprocket, round the tensioner roller, and over the coolant pump sprocket.
23 Slacken the tensioner bolts, allow the tensioner roller to rest against the belt, then tighten the tensioner bolts.
24 Refit the crankshaft pulley bolt, if not already done, and using a socket on the bolt, turn the engine through two revolutions in a clockwise direction (to bring No 1 cylinder back to TDC), then turn the crankshaft 60º anti-clockwise (No 1 cylinder at 60º BTDC).
25 The belt tension should now be checked
by applying Ford tension gauge, tool No 21-
113 to the longest belt run. Desired gauge
Used belt - 4 to 6
New belt - 10 to 11
If the tension gauge is not available, a rough guide is that the belt tension is correct when the belt can be twisted 90º in the middle of the longest run with the fingers using moderate pressure (see illustration). In this case, the vehicle should be taken to a Ford dealer so that the belt tension can be checked using the special gauge at the earliest opportunity.
18.25 Twisting the timing belt to assess its tension - 1.8 litre (R2A)
26 If adjustment of belt tension is necessary, turn the crankshaft clockwise to bring No 1 cylinder to TDC, then slacken the tensioner bolts and move the tensioner to increase or decrease the belt tension. Tighten the tensioner bolts to the specified torque.
27 Turn the crankshaft 90º clockwise past TDC, then anti-clockwise back to the 60º BTDC position (No 1 cylinder at 60º BTDC).
Check the belt tension again (see illustration).
18.27 No 1 cylinder at 60° BTDC for checking of timing belt tension - 1.8 litre (R2A)
28 Repeat the procedure given in paragraphs 26 and 27 until the belt tension is correct.
29 Refit the timing cover and secure with the two bolts and nuts. Ensure that the earth tag and the coolant hose clip are fitted under the relevant nuts (see illustration).
18.29 Earth tag (1) and coolant hose clip (2) locations on timing cover - 1.8 litre (R2A)
30 Unscrew the crankshaft pulley bolt, then refit the crankshaft pulley and the bolt and washer. Tighten the crankshaft pulley bolt to the specified torque, preventing the crankshaft from turning as described in paragraph 2.
31 If the engine is in the vehicle, reverse the operations described in paragraph 1.
1.6 and 1.8 litre (R6A type) 32 If the engine is in the vehicle, carry out the following operations.
a) Disconnect the battery negative lead.
b) Remove the alternator drivebelt.
c) Disconnect the HT leads from the spark plugs, noting their locations; detach the HT lead bracket from the camshaft cover, and position the leads out of the way.
d) Move the coolant hoses from the front of the timing cover, and position them across the top of the camshaft cover out of the way.
e) If desired for improved access, remove the fan shroud and the cooling fan assembly, although this is not essential.
33 Proceed as described in paragraphs 2 to 30 inclusive, noting the following differences for the 1.6 litre engine (see illustrations).
18.33a Upper timing cover securing bolts (arrowed) - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)
18.33b Removing the upper timing cover - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)
18.33c Removing the lower timing cover - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)
18.33d Oil pump TDC lug (A) and crankshaft sprocket lug (B) - 1.6/1.8 litre (R6A)
a) There is no sensor toothed disc on the crankshaft pulley.
b) A two-piece timing cover is fitted, consisting of upper and lower sections, each secured by two bolts. No earth tag or coolant hose clip is fitted to the bolts.
c) The TDC datum on the oil pump takes the form of a lug instead of a notch.
d) There is no distributor rotor shaft fitted to the camshaft sprocket bolt.
e) There is no timing belt backplate.
34 On completion, if the engine is in the vehicle, reverse the operations given in paragraph 32.
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