General information and precautions
The braking system is of the dual circuit hydraulic type. The front and rear circuits are operated independently from a tandem master cylinder, so that in the event of a hydraulic failure in one circuit, full braking force will still be available to two wheels through the remaining circuit.
A deceleration sensitive valve on Saloon, Hatchback and Estate models not fitted with an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), and a load apportioning valve on P100 models, is incorporated in the rear brake hydraulic circuit. The valve regulates the pressure applied to the rear brakes and reduces the possibility of the rear wheels locking under heavy braking.
All models are fitted with front disc brakes, with solid or ventilated discs depending on model. The calipers are of single piston sliding type, which ensures that equal pressure is applied to each disc pad.
Non-ABS models are fitted with rear disc brakes or rear drum brakes, incorporating leading and trailing shoes operated by double-acting wheel cylinders. A self-adjuster mechanism is fitted which consists of a toothed quadrant which is kept in contact with a toothed pin attached to the shoe strut by means of a spring. The quadrant incorporates an arm which locates in a slot in the leading shoe. As the shoe linings wear the quadrant is pulled from the pin when the footbrake is operated, and automatically repositioned to effectively lengthen the shoe strut.
ABS is available as an option for all models except the P100. The system comprises an electronic control unit, roadwheel sensors, hydraulic actuator with electrically-driven hydraulic pump, and the necessary valves and switches. Disc brakes are fitted to all four wheels. The front disc brakes are similar to those fitted to non-ABS models, but the rear brakes incorporate a self-adjusting mechanism, and a mechanical handbrake mechanism. The purpose of the system is to prevent wheel(s) locking during heavy brake applications. This is achieved by automatic release of the brake on the locked wheel, followed by reapplication of the brake. This procedure is carried out four times per second by the control valves in the valve block. The valves are controlled by the electronic control unit which itself receives signals from the wheel sensors, which monitor the locked or unlocked state of the wheels. A pressure regulating valve is incorporated in the rear hydraulic circuit to maintain the desired pressure ratio between the front and rear circuits.
Note: Hydraulic fluid is poisonous; wash off immediately and thoroughly in the case of skin contact and seek immediate medical advice if any fluid is swallowed or gets into the eyes.
Certain types of hydraulic fluid are
inflammable and may ignite when allowed into
contact with hot components; when servicing
any hydraulic system it is safest to assume
that the fluid is inflammable and to take
precautions against the risk of fire as though it
is petrol that is being handled. Hydraulic fluid
is also an effective paint stripper and will
attack plastics; if any is spilt, it should be
washed off immediately using copious
quantities of fresh water. Finally, it is
hygroscopic (it absorbs moisture from the air)
old fluid may be contaminated and unfit for
further use. When topping-up or renewing the
fluid, always use the recommended type and
ensure that it comes from a freshly-opened
Note: When working on the brake components, take care not to disperse brake dust into the air, or to inhale it, since it may contain asbestos which is injurious to health.
Safety restraints for children
See the following sections for directions on how to properly use safety restraints for children. Also see Air bag supplemental restraint system (SRS) in this chapter for special instructions about u ...
Locks and Security
KEYS The key operates all locks on your vehicle. In case of loss, replacement keys are available from your dealer. You should always carry a second key with you in a safe place in case you requi ...
Rear disc caliper - removal, overhaul and refitting
Note: Complete dismantling of the rear caliper should not be attempted unless Ford spring compressor (tool No 12-007) is available, or unless the problems likely to arise in the absence of the too ...